. . The proportion of immigrants placed as white-collar workers remains minimal little over 2%. . Living in the home of an Italian family is the best way of avoiding controls.
According to Arrow , reasons for discrimination can be analyzed from an economic perspective. . . Several studies Kaas and Manger ; Schneider et al. .
. . Age, women, and hiring: an experimental study. The findings in Italy were consistent with research results in other European countries. Article: migration in Italy 1993 1993, Una nota sul contributo lavorativo differenziale dello straniero, M. In Italy, one of the first studies in this field was performed by Allasino et al.
. . Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33 7 , 1025—1041. . . . .
Immigrants are concentrated in work where the conditions are harder, requiring greater physical effort, strength and willingness to work overtime and multiple shifts, with greater hazardousness and greater risks of accidents. Thus we find Moroccans among the workers most prone to accidents. . Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 3 , 317—336. .
Annual reports on the main foreign communities living in Italy. As we could imagine, the highest level of discrimination is the one between first-generation immigrants and Italian candidates. Immigrants in the Italian Labour Market. . More than a few fall back into the vicious circle of unauthorized employment, their only hope a new amnesty and regularization. The work context and the nationality of the worker seem to be more important for interaction with the external environment; these two elements play an important role in the integration into the labour market. This kind of discrimination is referred as by literature in terms of double discrimination: women are indeed discriminated twice, both because they are women and immigrants Boyd.
. Also important, moreover, are the geographical areas selected for study. . . .
Lanzardo 2005 Vai e Vieni. . Their main objective is to contribute to an informed debate on how best to manage labour migration, taking into account the shared concerns of countries of origin and employment for generating full and productive employment of their nationals, while at the same time respecting the basic rights of individual migrant workers and members of their families. This last result shows that discrimination in the labor market is relevant also for second-generation immigrants. . .
. This project was developed to support countries in applying international standards and to assist tri-partite constituencies in addressing discrimination in employment against migrant and ethnic minority workers, The objective of this ongoing effort is to reduce discrimination against migrant and ethnic minority workers by informing policy makers, employers, workers, civil society organizations and individuals engaged in anti-discrimination activities on how legislation, training and practical measures can be rendered more effective. . As graduation is to be considered equivalent by law—at least the ones obtained in the European Union—this last form of discrimination must be a taste-based one. Frank Bovenkerk himself, together with Rafael Pérez Molina, of the team which carried out the study in Spain, provided crucial assistance in explaining the method and illustrating the difficulties involved in practice. Patrick Taran and August Gächter were kindly present at all stages of the study and were generous with their suggestions. In the following two columns, we calculated the net discrimination against second-generation immigrants, and, finally, in the last columns, we reported the p value related to the chi-squared test.